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O que vale mais: um preso ou um estudante?

Estudante
O que vale mais: um preso ou um estudante?

Alguns números falam mais do que mil palavras. No Brasil, um preso federal custa o triplo de um aluno do ensino superior. E um preso estadual demanda quase nove vezes o custo de um estudante do ensino médio. A princípio, o que uma coisa tem a ver com a outra? Tudo. Há carência de recursos tanto em escolas quanto em prisões. Mas o absurdo maior é a negligência do Brasil com o saber, com o conhecimento.

Quando essa equação vai fechar? Vamos gastar muito mais com os presidiários se quisermos tornar as cadeias brasileiras menos degradantes. O ministro da Justiça, José Eduardo Cardozo, prometeu que “agora vai”. Não sei se você, assim como eu, sente vergonha ao ver as cenas de mãos saindo pelas grades. São seres humanos empilhados, espremidos e seminus. É um circo dos horrores. E piora nos rincões remotos do Norte e Nordeste, longe das câmeras. Mesmo assim, o Estado gasta mais de R$ 40 mil por ano com cada preso em presídio federal. E R$ 21 mil com cada preso em presídio estadual.

Esses valores, absolutos, não significam nada para nós. Mas, se dermos uma olhada no nível de instrução dos 417.112 presos, ficará claro como os dois mundos, o das escolas e o das prisões, estão intimamente ligados. Dos nossos detentos, mais da metade (254.177) é analfabeta ou não completou o ensino fundamental. O menor grupo é o que concluiu a faculdade: 1.715 presos. Esses números estão no relatório do Departamento Penitenciário Nacional (Depen) do ano passado. Os presídios são um retrato de nossa sociedade. Do lado de fora, poucos têm acesso a universidades. E criminosos ricos e influentes podem pagar bons advogados.

Poderíamos ficar resignados a nosso destino de país pobre em desenvolvimento humano. Poderíamos também construir macropresídios seguros para prender cada vez mais gente em cômodos amplos, com direito a boa alimentação, pátios, esportes e reeducação. Poderíamos melhorar a gestão penitenciária e reduzir a roubalheira. Em algumas cidades, os presos começam a ser soltos por falta de espaço.

O mais complicado de tudo, mesmo, é prevenir a criminalidade. Porque seria preciso investir forte na educação universal e de qualidade. Os últimos números do IBGE, do Censo 2010, deixam clara uma urgência: entre nossas crianças com 10 anos de idade, 6,52% são analfabetas. Você, que lê este artigo, quando se alfabetizou? Provavelmente entre os 5 e 7 anos de idade, como acontece nas maiores economias do mundo – aquele grupo privilegiado em que o Brasil se insere com orgulho.

 Essa criançada brasileira que não sabe escrever nem seu nome não faz ideia de que está trancada na prisão da ignorância. Sem cometer crime algum, as crianças foram condenadas à marginalidade perpétua. Isso não significa que serão desonestas ou hóspedes dos presídios-modelos que o ministro da Justiça promete construir. Mas que chance o Estado dá a elas? Esse porcentual de 6,52% nada tem a ver com heranças malditas. São crianças que nasceram na década de Lula.

Por mais que se comemorem avanços na Educação, em uma década o total de analfabetos no Brasil caiu menos de 1 milhão. Eram quase 15 milhões e hoje são 14 milhões que não sabem ler ou escrever – esse total equivale a duas vezes a população inteira do Paraguai. Em dez anos de investimento e dois mandatos de governo do “tudo pelo social”? Não dá para festejar. Entre os brasileiros com mais de 15 anos, continuamos mais analfabetos que Zimbábue, Panamá e Guiné Equatorial. 

As disparidades regionais são outra preocupação. Em analfabetismo, segundo o Censo 2010, o Maranhão do clã Sarney está em 24º lugar e só perde para Paraíba, Piauí e Alagoas. Há 19,31% de analfabetos no Maranhão, porcentual maior que na República do Congo, na África. No programa do PMDB em rede nacional de televisão, na quinta-feira passada, o presidente “vitalício” do Senado, José Sarney, afirmou: “O bom homem público olha e vive para seu país”. Eu já ficaria satisfeita se o homem incomum, blindado por Lula e aliado de Dilma, olhasse para o Estado onde nasceu.

Em mortalidade infantil, o Maranhão da governadora Roseana Sarney só perde para Alagoas. De cada 1.000 maranhenses que nascem, 36 bebês morrem antes de completar o primeiro ano de vida. Não sei como a dinastia que controla esse Estado há 45 anos consegue dormir em paz. No programa do PMDB, Roseana disse que uma mulher no poder “significa uma visão mais humana de governar”.

A esperança é que o Brasil amadureça e passe a investir logo em suas crianças e seus estudantes para um dia, talvez, reduzir a superlotação dos presídios. Não é uma fórmula infalível, mas parece ser uma aposta sensata.

Obs.: Esta matéria acima é um artigo de RUTH DE AQUINO, colunista da Revista Época

*(Edvarton Cavalcante, professor do Colégio São Lucas, do colégio Antares, do IMH. Aprovado na EsSA/2008 e no EspCEX/2008. Graduando em Matemática pela UFPI. Apaixonado por concursos e vestibulares).

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